Methane from coal mines is largely vented to reduce safety risks and is released from active and abandoned mines. With the appropriate infrastructure, this methane can be captured and sold as fuel.


California Air Resources Board (2014): Mine Methane Capture (MMC) Projects

The MMC protocol provides methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions associated with the capture and destruction of methane (CH4) that would otherwise be vented into the atmosphere as a result of mining operations at active underground and surface coal and trona mines and abandoned underground coal mines. The protocol focuses on quantifying the change in methane emissions, but also accounts for effects on carbon dioxide emissions. 

Environmental Protection Agency: Coalbed Methane Outreach Program

CMOP aims to promote the profitable recovery, utilization, and mitigation of coal mine methane (CMM). Their Tools and Resources library provides an overview of resources for different project phases and CMM sources. They also provide country-specific information on CMM strategy.

Environmental Protection Agency: Analysis of International Best Practices for Coal Mine Methane Recovery and Utilization

Comparison of different national coal bed and coal mine recovery and utilization frameworks. Analysis of Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Poland, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States policies regarding economic incentives, technology deployment, and liability schemes.

Kholod et al. (2020): Global methane emissions from coal mining to continue growing even with declining coal production, Journal of Cleaner Production

This study uses the Model for Calculating Coal Mine Methane (MC2M) to predict that methane emissions from active underground mines will increase by a factor of 4, while emissions from abandoned mines will increase by a factor of 8 by 2100.

UNECE Group of Experts on Coal Mine Methane (2016): Best Practice Guidance for Effective Methane Drainage and Use in Coal Mines

This report covers best practices in gas control, prediction of gas emissions, ventilation, and methane drainage, as well as abatement and utilization of drained methane.

Boger et al. (2014): Chapter 18 – Worldwide Coal Mine Methane and Coalbed Methane Activities, “Coal Bed Methane – From Prospect to Pipeline”

This excerpt provides an overview of coal bed methane production in all countries around the world where there is a viable coal deposit.

California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board (2014): Compliance Offset Protocol Mine Methane Capture Projects

This California protocol aims to quantify greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with the capture and destruction of methane as a result of mining operations at active underground and surface coal and trona mines, as well as abandoned underground coal mines. Eligible projects include Ventilation Air Methane activities from underground mines, drainage activities from surface and underground mines, and methane recovery from abandoned underground mines.

Methane from Coal Mines – Reducing Climate Change Impact, Global Methane Initiative

This report predicts that global coal production might only decline after 2030, given current trends. It provides an overview of the logistics of coal mine methane and abandoned mine methane projects.

Global Coal Mine Tracker, Global Energy Monitor

This tracker includes operating and proposed mines with a capacity of 1 million tonnes per year or more. It also has comprehensive datasets with GHG and methane emissions by country.

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E): Reducing Emissions of Methane Every Day of the Year

REMEDY is a research project aiming to reduce emissions from oil, gas, and coal value chains. One key initiative is destroying coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM) from 250 operating underground mines.

Coalbed Methane Outreach Program: Emissions from Coal Mining in China

Under the Global Methane Initiative, 30 full-scale and pre-feasibility studies of CMM recovery and utilization projects at Chinese coal mines have been conducted.

COAL RESOURCES – Coal Methane Bibliography